After assassination of Mohammed Dawoud Khan, the first president of Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan is established by Marxist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) in 1978. Marxist government enforces anti-Islamic rules which results in Mujahidin uprising and since government could not fight with guerrillas they ask for help from Soviets. Red Army after a long story invades Afghanistan in 1979 and withdraws in 1989 with almost 15,000 casualties and more than 50,000 injured.
After this, communist government fights with Mujahidin for a few more years and finally after 14 years, Kabul is conquered by Mujahidin in 1992.
From every aspect, invading Afghanistan by Soviet Union was a mistake and Imam Khomeini’s anticipation about Soviet is now applicable for US and their allies:
“One day Soviet ambassador came to me and said Afghanistan government asks Red Army to Afghanistan, I told him it is a mistake by Soviet. Of course they can occupy Afghanistan but they cannot stay, if you think you can occupy there and calm them, it is a daydream. Afghanis are Muslims and are protesting government, even if you go there or any other powerful country, occupy there but cannot calm and control them and finally you are defeated.”
After fall of government in 1992, Seven Party Mujahidin alliance do not agree on power and start to fight among each other for several reasons.
Alliance of Peshawar Seven
In 1985 an alliance forms between seven parties in Peshawar to form an Islamic government but later when they conquer Kabul in 1992, do not agree on power distribution and start fighting all over Afghanistan.
These parties are:
- Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic group) led by Burhanuddin Rabbani and Ahmad Shah Massoud (mainly Tajiks)
- Hezbi Islami (Islamic party) Hekmatyar branch led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (mainly Pashtuns).
- Hezbi Islami Khalis branch led by Mohammad Yunus Khalis (mainly Pashtuns).
- Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan led by Abdul Rab Rasul Sayyaf (mainly Wahabi Pashtuns).
- National Islamic Front for Afghanistan led by Ahmed Gailani (mainly Sufi Pashtuns).
- Afghanistan National Liberation Front led by Sibghatullah Mojaddedi (mainly Pashtuns).
- Islamic and National Revolution Movement of Afghanistan led by Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi (mainly Pashtun).
Image: Afghanistan after withdrawal of Soviet in 1989. Red: government, blue: Jamiat-i-Islami, olive: Hekmatyar, green and white: Khalis, yellow: Shiite parties, green: Nabi Mohammadi, violet: Sayyaf, pink: Gailani.
Internal fight starts between different groups in Kabul and foreign countries, each supports one group.
Pakistan supports Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Uzbekistan supports General Abdul Rashid Dostum (a highly ranked official who leads National Islamic Movement party), Saudi Arabia supports Sayyaf’s group and other Wahabi groups close to them, Iran supports Shiite groups (Hizb-i-Wahdat (Islamic Unity Party) which roots in Nasr and Pasdaran and other groups) and Jamiat-i-Islami etc. who want the government of Rabbani.
Hekmatyar allies with Sayyaf and later with General Dostum and has hardest confront against Dawlat and Jamiat-i-Islami. But in 1994, Massoud conquers Kabul and defeats troops of Hekmatyar and Hizb-i-Wahdat (Massacre of western Kabul and Afshar neighborhood happens during this time but criminals never determined and trialed but allegations are due Massoud and Rabbani’s troop and Sayyaf and Hekmatyar’s troops.). At the same time Mazari Sharif in northern Afghanistan is conquered by General Dostum.
Coincidentally Taliban is established in Kandahar by support of Saudi Arabia, Pakistan etc. Taliban with Jihadi motto gathers a lot of troops and in first step conquers Kandahar. After two years by conquering Kabul, Herat and other eastern, northern and southern cities in Afghanistan claims the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan which is accepted by Saudi Arabia, UAE and Pakistan only. The result of Taliban power is massacres, plunders and destroying historical places and other brutal crimes and only northeastern part of Afghanistan under the control of Ahmad Shah Massoud and Rabbani is safe.
Massacre in Mazari Sharif and specially Hazaras who are mainly Shiite is one of most brutal crimes happened by Taliban. During the attack to Mazari Sharif, Iran consulate is attacked which results in death of 11 diplomats and journalists by Sipah-e-Sahaba, an ally of Taliban and Al-Qaeda.
In 1996, after conquering Kabul by Taliban, General Dostum who feels the danger allies with Massoud. Later supported by Iran to promote peace and strives of Afghan leaders to unify different Shiite groups with Jamiat-i-Islami and supports of other countries, northern alliance forms:
- Jamiat-i-Islami mainly Sunni Tajiks led by Ahmad Shah Massoud and Burhanuddin Rabbani.
- Junbish-i-Milli (Islamic Movement) mainly Sunni Uzbeks led by Abdul Rashid Dostum.
- Eastern Shura (council) mainly Sunni Pashtuns led by Abdul Haq and Abdul Qadir.
- Harakat-e Islami mainly Shiite Tajiks and Hazaras led by Asif Mohseni and Sayed Mohammad Ali Jawid.
- Hezb-e Wahdat mainly Shiite Hazaras led by Mohammad Mohaqiq and Karim Khalili.
Northern alliance then saves northern and northeastern areas from Taliban (except Herat province).
After 11 September 2001 attacks, USA accuses Osama Bin Laden. Bin Laden is born in a small area near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and from the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan enters Afghanistan, after Soviet withdrawal, leaves Afghanistan and in 1994 comes back to Jalalabad and joins Taliban. Several terrorist attacks are attributed to him before 2001 attacks, such as attack to US ship in Yemen and US embassy in Tanzania.
After Taliban does not surround Bin Laden to US, USA and their allies attack widespread Afghanistan in 2001 with the name “Operating Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan”. It is noteworthy that Ahmad Shah Massoud was assassinated two days before 9/11 attacks. He denied any foreign interference specially from US in Afghanistan when he meets US deputy of minister of foreign affairs.
After heavy air raids performed by US and their allies, Kabul and some key cities are liberated by northern alliance in fall 2001. Mohammad Ismail Khan one of commanders of northern alliance and Herat ex-commander with support of Iran could take control of Herat again. Later on Kunduz is liberated and finally Kandahar is liberated in November 2001 and Taliban fell.
After establishing the new government in 2004 by Hamid Karzai until now fights happen sporadically. During these years Afghanistan Army with support of NATO mainly operates several times to liberate occupied areas by Taliban but so far the total liberation of Afghanistan has not achieved. Taliban and some other separatist groups are still active in Afghanistan…